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Integrating quotations means “to weave the author’s words into your own sentences.” Quotations should not just be thrown into your essay. You may use block quotations in this research paper, but generally do not use them in a standard 2-3 page essay.

  • There are two rules about verb tense when introducing quotations.
  • In this particular example, the author’s name is also incorporated into the explanation of the evidence as well.
  • When reading a passage, try first to understand it as a whole, rather than pausing to write down specific ideas or phrases.
  • Use the words of the quote grammatically within your own sentence.

Keep reading for strategies for paraphrasing properly. The paraphrased paragraph of Cixous’ essay includes a direct quote and a paraphrase citation.

Provide Context and Introduce Quotations

Now you’ve succeeded in changing the structure, but the passage still contains many direct quotations, so you need to go on to the second step. Add variety and a professional tone to your writing by using a variety of signal phrases. Often, choosing the right signal phrase is about knowing how you plan to use it. You can also use square brackets to show that you changed or added some words. That is necessary if you need some previous context to understand the meaning of the quote or if you want to make sure that pronouns agree with their antecedents. Pick a quotation that supports your argument and convinces your reader. Usually, it is the results of credible research, an opinion of a subject matter expert, or confirmed statistics.

If you would like to exclude some words from a quotation, replace the words you are not including with an ellipsis – … The long quotation is indented half an inch from the rest of the text, so it looks like a block of text. The line before your long quotation, when you’re introducing the quote, usually ends with a colon.

What are the 3 components of quotation analysis?

If you work with a lab partner to set up an experiment, for instance, but run and analyze the results yourself, you should credit the lab partner in a footnote or by reference within your paper. Similarly, if you and a partner present a scene from a play, and you later write a paper using some of the insights you gained during production, you should credit the other actor. Scribendi’s in-house editors work with writers from all over the globe to perfect their writing. They know that no piece of writing is complete without a professional edit, and they love to see a good piece of writing turn into a great one after the editing process. Scribendi’s in-house editors are unrivaled in both experience and education, having collectively edited millions of words and obtained nearly 20 degrees collectively.

Write a sentence in which you make the point you want to support or illustrate with the quotation. End the sentence with a colon to introduce your sentence. According to can be followed by the name of a publication or a person. Put a comma after the name of the person or publication that introduces the quote. Both of these passages can easily be corrected to make them acceptable quotations or paraphrases.

How do I combine quotation marks with other punctuation marks?

Cite your quote or paraphrase properly according to the rules of style you are following in your essay. But when all is said and done, the question of when to quote and when to paraphrase depends a great deal on the specific context of the writing and the effect you are trying to achieve. Learning the best times to quote and paraphrase takes practice and experience. In the example above, the writer’s paraphrase expresses the same ideas as the original passage, but does not imitate the construction nor use similar words from the original passage.

Keep in mind that you need to reflect the author’s intent accurately when using this strategy. Don’t change important words in a quotation so that it better fits your argument, as this is a form of intellectual fraud. When learning how to paraphrase a quote, you first need to consider whether you should be paraphrasing a text or quoting it directly. It’s easy to see how the two are similar, given that the steps to paraphrasing and summarizing both include putting ideas into your own words. For many writers, especially those who are unfamiliar with the concepts of a particular field, learning how to paraphrase a source or sentence is daunting.


Do not use quotation marks at the beginning or end of the block quote—the indentation is what indicates that it’s a quote. Used effectively, quotations can provide important pieces of evidence and lend fresh voices and perspectives to your narrative. Used ineffectively, however, quotations can clutter your text and interrupt the flow of your argument. This handout will help you decide when and how to quote like a pro. Don DeLillo characterizes the American National Identity as consumerism.

words that introduce quotes or paraphrases

Signal phrases provide a seamless transition from the writer’s thoughts to a source’s thoughts and can provide details about the source that highlight credibility and expertise. When you quote another writer’s words, it’s best to introduce or contextualize the quote. Paraphrasing allows you to explain and share ideas you’ve learned from other sources without plagiarizing them. For the notes and bibliography system, add a superscript at the end of your paraphrase that corresponds to your footnote or endnote. The notes and bibliography system includes footnotes or endnotes, whereas the author-date system includes in-text citations.

Authorised by

For a useful example of unauthorized code borrowing, see this page of the Princeton University website. Relying on someone’s research method is like #5 above—borrowing a text’s plan or structure. If your approach to a problem is inspired by someone else’s work on a similar or analogous case, credit the original researcher. Building on the work of others is appropriate and desirable, but methods, like specific words and phrases, are a form of intellectual property. You can also practice putting things in your own words by changing sentences from passive to active, or vice versa, or by varying word choice and sentence length.

words that introduce quotes or paraphrases

Did you know that copying portions of a quote without quotation marks (i.e., patchwriting) is a form of plagiarism—even if you provide an in-text citation? If you’ve reworded sections of a quote in your own style, simply enclose any direct quotations in quotation marks to indicate that the writing is not your own. If you find the perfect quote from a reliable source that fits your main topic, supports your argument, and lends authority to your paper but is too long (40+ words) or complex, it should be paraphrased. Long/complex quotes can also be shortened with omissions and editorial changes .

Sample Sentences

Don’t always rely on stock verbs such as “states” or “says.” Think for a little while about the purpose of your quotation and then choose a context-appropriate verb. Sometime you may decide to use a direct quote but want to avoid including a lengthy passage when the essential meaning that you want to include is much shorter.

One way to do this is to use the narrative style to introduce the quote. Again, this revision is better because the additional information introduces and explains the point of the evidence. In this particular example, the author’s name is also incorporated into the explanation of the evidence as well. In APA, it is preferable to weave in the author’s name into your essay, usually at the beginning of a sentence. However, it would also have been acceptable to end an improved paraphrase with just the author’s last name and the date of publication in parentheses. Here are four examples of what I mean about properly quoting and paraphrasing evidence in your research essays. In each case, I begin with a BAD example, or the way NOT to quote or paraphrase.

All You Need to Know about Paraphrasing

You can also quote from the text you’re reviewing or critiquing to back up your opinion. Apart from the standard words like “believes” or “notes,” you can use dozens of synonyms as quote starters. But, be careful as each of those conveys its own implicit thesis connotation, so you might find it tricky to pick the right word. The word examples below are generally placed after the phrase “the author” or the author’s last name. If you’re not paraphrasing , you must put quotation marks around the quote.

  • Introduceyour quotes and paraphrases to your reader, especially on first reference.
  • Don’t change important words in a quotation so that it better fits your argument, as this is a form of intellectual fraud.
  • Often, students are unclear as to whether or not they need to cite a piece of evidence because they believe it to be “common knowledge” or because they are not sure about the source of information.
  • ’ But in this exclamation, I should have been as fanatical as Bryant or Cleverly.

Paraphrasing involves restating information by using different words and phrasing so that it is different from the original source, but retains the original meaning. Paraphrasing is useful when you’d like to use information from a specific part of a source, but the exact wording is not necessary to make your point. All double quotation marks in the original source must be changed to single quotation marks. Notice that when you use an article title as part of your signal phrase, you use “Title Capitalization” and capitalize the first letter of each main word in the title. A general rule of thumb is that any Confederation College CS course assignment should contain less than 10% of directly quoted material. A direct quote is when you take text directly from a source without changing anything.

Warning: When You Must Cite

Apply today to get a comprehensive liberal arts education that will improve your writing abilities. Although words that introduce quotes or paraphrases writing code may seem different from writing papers, the same standards of acknowledgment apply.

words that introduce quotes or paraphrases

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